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A predictive interdisciplinary science related to the environment, human and animal health together with the application of 3Rs principle, Reduce, Refine, Replace (Directive 2010/63 EU), is urgently required. Cell and tissue-based assays, moving towards complexity, from in vitro epithelial barriers (i.e. alveolar, dermal, intestinal) to 3D cultures, spheroids and organoids, are considered useful tools in research.

The Second Summer School will be focused on the application of new complex methods, models and methodologies looking the transversality of the disciplines, to implement and encourage innovative applications and perspectives in science.